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- Ethical Models/ Rules/ Views
Ethical models provide the guidelines for judging right or wrong decisions. Different rules/views/models of ethics can be used to make ethical decisions. The decisions made are analyzed by these models. These models show the values, cultural features and personal traits that determine one’s reaction to the dilemma and relate personal interests and those of others. The paper discusses these ethical models.
Moral Rights Rule demands that the decisions made are the ones that acknowledge and protect people’s fundamental rights, such as freedom of expression. Employers make decisions affecting their employees’ rights. Ethical decisions should, therefore, acknowledge and protect rights of all the employees. However, this model has its limitations. There is a conflict over what the fundamental rights are. The decisions made may benefit one group and hurt another group. The choice of the group to benefit from protection is also a conflict. To hit the correct relationship is not easy.
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The Utilitarian or Consequential Rule is another model that sought to explain how a decision is considered ethical basing on the consequences of the decision. An ethical decision is the one that seeks to do good to most people. Scientists regularly weigh the resulting benefits and harms of whether to approve a newly discovered or whether disapprove a certain fungicide in the market. The limitation of this model is that it does not consider justice. A certain decision may benefit the greatest number of people but be clearly unjust. It is also almost impossible to equate values to the benefits and harms resulting from a given action in comparison to the benefits and harms that may occur from other actions.
The Integrative Social Contracts Rule analyzes influence of culture on ethics. In this model, ethical decisions are based on the culture that exists in organizations or communities. Some cultures may approve the consumption of genetically modified organisms, and other cultures severely condemn the same. This rule has limitations when it fails to conform to the culture of a bigger setting.
In the Thery of Justice or Legal Rule, ethical decision is the one that treats people fairly and sometimes unfairly in accordance to the laws and standards, Procedural Justice and consistency. This rule is limited because political manners affect fairness. Determination of fair rules and standards is also a major challenge in satisfying ethics.
2. Personal Perspective
Utilitarian or consequential rule closely reflects ethical perspectives. Actions with the greatest balance of benefits compared to harm strikes the best balance. All the ethical decisions have consequences. Focusing on the consequences is very vital for the good of many.
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Utilitarianism provides the most straightforward way for deciding the morally right actions. The principle that morality depends on the balance of benefits and harms of our actions is perfect for society. It looks beyond self-interest to consider unfairness of the interests of people affected by the actions. Own happiness is not of interest but that of all concerned people. This age that is considered more of self-interest utilitarianism is thus the perfect reminder that morality demands us to look beyond self for the benefit of all.
3. Ethical Dilemma Recognition and Analysis
Ethical dilemma refers to a situation whereby one has to make a decision on a particular action bearing in mind that the decision may harm some people and benefits others. It involves decision-making in line with one’s ethical values conflicting self-interest. A close family friend had the ethical dilemma of euthanasia. Euthanasia is the practice of killing someone because of either old age or severe illness with alleviation of pain. Euthanasia can either be voluntary, if the person consents to it or involuntary, if the person uninformed. The family member was very ill, relied on the intensive care unit for breathing. It had a huge economic impact on the family because it was expensive and caused psychological trauma to the family members seeing that their loved one is undergoing such an illness with no hope of survival.
Euthanasia is perceived to be morally wrong in the moral rights rule context. The fundamental rights of a person, in this case the right to life, is not respected and protected. The consequential rule is another model that can be used to resolve this ethical dilemma. The killing of a person who is straining the family finances not sparing the psychological distress on the family due to his poor condition can be considered morally right because it seeks to do good to most people. The dilemma was eventually resolved by killing that person. The consequential rule was applied in this decision. The limitation of this decision is that it does not consider justice. The decision benefited the greatest number of people because the family was relieved of trauma and financial constraints, but it was clearly unjust. It does not consider whether the benefits are produced by speculation or murder.
4. Ethical Leadership and Corporate Social Responsibility
Ethical leadership is ethical decision-making coupled with ethical behavior in personal or organization environment. It ensures a balance between personal obligations, organization obligations, and community around. It ensures that the organization obligations are in line with ethical principles, which are important in meeting customers, employees and stakeholders’ expectations.
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Corporate social responsibility is very important as it ensures that organizations act in line with the rules and regulations and meet customers, employees and stakeholders’ expectations. With the recent technological advancement, social media, such as Facebook avoiding scandals and reputation maintenance is important. Corporate social responsibility incorporates environmental sustainability, governance, and social investments, such as non-profit organizations and education.
Organizations should have a corporate social responsibility policy, which addresses major issues facing the world, such as a sustainable environment. It involves minimization of greenhouse gas emissions and effective management of energy. It helps in actively participating in the bid to solve the world’s emerging problems.
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