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Activism refers to a direct vigorous action taken in favor or in opposition of a cause. Activism in most instances demands radical changes to be implemented. It can be achieved through demonstration, strikes or protests. Internet activism incorporates use of electronic communications, this always involves the use of social media such as Twitter, Facebook, and Youtube. The internet has always been used to organize protests through sending e-mails and  social media posts. On the other hand, hacking happens when information conveyed through the internet media is illegally accessed and the content is manipulated. Information obtained can also be used for wrong purpose or leaked. The two activities are common in that they both occur online.

In attempt to protect their web sites from intrusions, organizations have adopted internet-filtering software. Huang, MacCallum, & Du (2010), assert that the software eliminates unauthorized persons from accessing the site, hence, it has helped to curb hacking .Leakage of information is, therefore, prevented by filtering software. Various affected companies have also adopted hardening of their systems. This ensures software is configured to ensure maximum security, since configuration will demand a unique password for access. Besides, installation of a firewall system will also limit hacking. This software will detect and track any foreign information being incorporated and information being withdrawn. Additionally, it prevents unauthorized individuals from accessing the site, hence, eliminating hacking.

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Viruses are also another main source of hacking, since hackers corrupt computer information using viruses; to counter this a strong anti-virus should be installed. IT specialists should be brought on board for constant maintenance of software. Consequently, these trained personnel will help in selection of best anti-virus for maximum protection of the software, besides, ensuring that all the systems are patched.

In case of a system attack, various measures should be brought in place. Initially, the entry hacking point should be identified. Entry hacking point is the point through which hacking is done. It should be carefully determined with the help of an IT specialist. It should be followed by penetration test that helps in determining other vulnerable points that may lead to hacking; the action ensures that future possibility of hacking is minimized.  Lam, LeBlanc, & Smith (2009), agree that all the software operators should be trained on the need for confidentiality in matters pertaining to the software. This will ensure that unauthorized persons are not in possession of important matters about the software. Firewalls should then be configured to allow for maximum security. Configuration should also be carefully done with the help of an IT specialist. A password known only to the users should be developed and fixed which should be proceeded by installation of an anti-virus that will protect the software information damage. Finally, physical location of an organization should be free from disruptions or any direct damage. The proximity of the firm should be carefully selected to allow for maximum physical security.

Learning management system is a soft ware application that allows employees to increase their expertise through trainings and development programs undertaken online. The management is also capable of delivering various services online. It employs techniques such as video conferencing. In developing a learning management system, certain security considerations should be noted. Crucial information relating to the software should be kept confidential to prevent hackers that can intrude into the system and leak pertinent information.  Meghanathan, Boumerdassi, Chaki, & Nagamalai (2010), opine that leakage of information may further provide idea adopted by competitors which, in turn, may have devastating consequences to the whole process.  Integrity of the system should be maintained. Integrity is to put up to the acceptable moral and ethical standards of a particular society. Various standards are demanded by the society and the system should meet these requirements. Some of the standards that the system should ensure are a healthy environment; the system should not be a source of environmental pollution. In addition, integrity also requires the system to be sufficient, in that, it can perform all the programs necessary in the learning process. This eliminates any form of inadequacy in the system. Employees, therefore, should be able to acquire trainings. Availability of learning management system is also crucial and should be considered. The system should be easily accessed by the potential users. It should allow for simplicity in access and operation. Sophisticated long procedures that may bar users have to be minimized. Slow access to the site that may be a barrier to users should also be prevented. Authentication is another key security factor that should be put into consideration.  Poole (2012), reiterates that it refers to the inscription process to a site where a unique password and username is used to access the learning management system. This should be skillfully done to bar any skeptic entry into the site with malicious intentions. Authentication technique should be of maimum security. However, the process should be easy to understand and operated by the authorized users.

According to Jajodia & Mazumdar (2012), mobile phones have depicted need for unique cyber security concerns unlike other computing devices. This has been fueled by the springing up of smart phones. Smart phones can be compared to other conventional computing devices since they render a number of internet activities and other unique services. Individuals prefer phones to computers due to their portability. These activities have resulted to various threats to the smart phones, for example, the continuous attacks by malwares (malicious software) are a great threat to smart phones. However, smart phones lack anti-virus software application that makes them prone to various viral defects. Besides, this has attracted malicious cyber attackers that access this information.   Hence, there is need for anti-virus software installation on smart phones. Additionally, smart phones have encouraged monetary transactions to be performed through phones since bank services can be directly accessed through the phones. Financial securities are bought and the payment is done through smart phones, which attracts hackers that track the information from these transactions.  Wang (2009), agrees that this information hack has heightened the need for software that can limit access to individual’s private information.

Security concerns in mobile phones operation can be incorporated into the software development process. Firewall systems should also be introduced in this software. When properly installed, the system detects and bars any intrusion into the phone. This application protects private information from access by hackers. Sensitive confidential information like monetary financial transactions will remain known only to the owner. Antivirus application needs to be included in the development process. According to Xiao, Shen, & Du (2007), strong antivirus will prevent any information from being corrupted by intrusions. Threats posed by malware can counter by the existence of software.

Organizations should, in all circumstances, adopt measures to counter any cyber insecurity in their computing devices. Constant maintenance of antivirus should be adopted. Updated and adjusted anti-virus software prevents information in the systems from being corrupted by intrusions. Notably, an IT specialist needs to be employed to assist in the constant maintenance of the anti-virus. In order to counter hacking, organizations need configure their software to ensure maximum security formations. Besides, vigorous sensitization should be carried out to alert the software users on the need of confidentiality in handling information concerning the software. This will prevent information leakage to undesired persons.  Lam, LeBlanc, & Smith (2009), opine that the presence of malicious codes is also a threat to organization software, this may detected in form of foreign and unique email. Such unknown emails should be immediately be deleted. Dissemination of emails should also be done carefully to ensure that they are sent to right persons.  Huang, MacCallum, & Du (2010), explains that mobile phone operators should consider actions that will ensure safety of devices. A unique password should be set to allow limited access by unnecessary individuals. Smart phones have adopted unique authentication for its users. These inscriptions should be maintained confidential. Physical security of the device should be provided. Careless operations of the device in areas rendered insecure should be minimized to curb theft incidences. In order to guard stored information from being corrupted and damaged, users should   select phones that allow for anti-virus installation. Besides, to curb theft cases, mobile phone operators should consider devices that have anti-theft tracker.

Policies are the outlined strategies adopted that lead towards achievement of the set organization objectives. Policy formulation is a function of the management and a key in success of any organization. Organizational procedures are the distinct and fixed steps stipulated by the policy that lead to the objectives set. Procedures are logically arranged and the order is strictly adhered to for realization of the goals. Guidelines are the indicators of the cause of actions to be undertaken in the organizational procedures. Guidelines provide a benchmark upon which an organization is gauged to be in line with the set procedures. However, standards are the set expectations that an organization must realize. Organizations have an array of standards to function in accordance to. These include: ethical and moral standards demanded by the society, government expectations among others. Managers may adopt policy formulation in marketing process with the sole objective to increase their sales volume and expanding their market control. This can be achieved by adopting strategies that will help to outdo the competitors and strategies that will make their product be more appealing to the customers. Management will employ procedures in the staffing process. The staffing process will consist of distinct steps undertaken to ensure that competent personnel is employed. Management ensures the outlined and fixed steps undertaken that also minimizzes favoritism and incompetency. Guidelines will help managers scrutinize whether the staffing process was done efficiently. This may be achieved through employees appraisal test that will depict the employees competency and incompetency. In case of incompetency, the whole staffing process will be reviewed.  Xiao, Shen, & Du (2007), assert that management will achieve standards by ensuring that the company functions in line with expectations of various sectors. Environment expects healthy business operations, an organization can ensure this by engaging in operations that prevents environmental pollution.

Policy document assists in policy formulation, for instance, the management will adopt various strategies existing in the policy document to increase the sales volume and market share. Product differentiation strategy can be adopted to enable a product compete other products. Similarly, provision of after sales services may be used to win the loyalty of customers. Various other policies may be adopted by management to achieve its set objectives. Managers will use the procedure document when undertaking various management functions such as staffing. Staffing procedure differs in various firms. Some of the outlined procedures that may be adopted in staffing are: publication of the vacancy, which is a part of the recruitment process where all the candidates are identified. The next step is selection process where the required qualifications are determined among those recruited. This is followed by orientation that entails familiarizing those selected with operations of an organization. Training is then offered to those recruited to enable them understand the task bestowed upon them. The last stage is adoption that entails introducing the recruits into the operation process. Guideline document in staffing may stipulate that a performance appraisal be undertaken to measure employees performance. It highlights whether the procedures were clearly adhered to or not. Desired standards are achieved when an organization operates within the expectations of its environment. A standard document explains various actions expected from the firm by various sectors. Governments expect firms to pay taxes promptly; when a firm ensures this requirement, its meet the government expectations. Wang (2009), asserts that lack of a guideline document may lead to a situation where an employee plugs a flash drive into a computer local area network resulting into the computer crush. This denotes that an organization lacks a clear outline on the placement of dangerous components within the organization.

In development of a database that will contain employees details in an enterprise, certain security measures need to be put in place to ensure that the employees and organization  information is reserved. Poole (2012), affirms that authentication is a security measure that ensures those obtaining an access to the database are authorized persons. Authentication process ensures that the information within the database is not altered for self-interests. Access to some sites should also be barred. Sites pertaining to employees personal information should be kept private. This can be achieved by certain holders of certain user names being denied the access to the site. Access control ensures that confidential matters pertaining the organization are not accessed by unauthorized people and upholds integrity in the organization. Incorporation of a backup system is also of key importance. Backup system ensures similar information being stored in other systems apart from the database only. In case of corruption or deletion of information in the database, the same information can be obtained from other sources.

 When human resource department engages in onboarding, placement of new employees etc., some security measures should be put in place in line with the database management. Accuracy should be regarded when entering new employee details in the database.  Jajodia & Mazumdar (2012), assert that this ensures the database is a true representation of the employee. New employees should be guided in the authentication process to be well acquainted with the database access. In providing information about the organization to its members, system administrators should adopt access control measure. This ensures that employees do not access confidential information about the organizations. Payroll managers ensure salary payments to the employees and prompt tax payments by the latter. In performing this, the managers should establish backup storage security system. This ensures all tax payment information is retrieved in case of any tampering. Employees may tend to default tax payments and tamper with the information related to tax payments. Besides, employees details have to be properly entered to ensure tax imposition on correct parties. When performing administrative purposes managers can employ inscription as a security measure.  According to Huang, MacCallum, & Du (2010), this measure discloses important managerial data from access by casual employees. In their turn, the employees need to ensure that the information is kept private in maintaining their personal data within the database. This can be achieved through authentication of the site. Authentication will only allow access by the owner, hence, maintain high level of privacy.

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